Artificial Intelligence: Past and Future
Artificial intelligence is front and center, with business and government leaders pondering the right moves. But what’s happening in the lab, where discoveries by academic and corporate researchers will set AI’s course for the coming year and beyond?
The beginnings of modern AI can be traced to classical philosophers’ attempts to describe human thinking as a symbolic system. But the field of AI wasn’t formally founded until 1956, at a conference at Dartmouth College, in Hanover, New Hampshire, where the term “artificial intelligence” was coined.
Let’s take Google Duplex Project example that is very explained on Google AI Blog.
Google’s CEO, Sundar Pichai, introduces a new robotic assistant in his keynote address to Google’s 2018 conference in California on Tuesday. The virtual assistant, powered by Google Duplex, uses a very natural speech pattern that includes interjections such as ‘er’ and ‘mmm-hmm’ so that it sounds eerily lifelike.
Well you can find the Artificial Intelligence Provider’s Gartner view by Jim Hare (Gartner) in the following article & Webinars. There are more links below that are providing more information & perspectives of ongoing & upcoming Projects
In 2011, IBM’s question-answering system Watson won the quiz show “Jeopardy!” by beating reigning champions Brad Rutter and Ken Jennings. Credit: IBM/Jeopardy!
Microsoft launched Kinect for Xbox 360, the first gaming device to track human body movement, using just a 3D camera and infra-red detection, enabling users to play their Xbox 360 wirelessly. The award-winning machine learning for human motion capture technology for this device was developed by the Computer Vision group at Microsoft Research, Cambridge
Robot HRP-2 built by SCHAFT Inc of Japan, a subsidiary of Google, defeats 15 teams to win DARPA‘s Robotics Challenge Trials. HRP-2 scored 27 out of 32 points in 8 tasks needed in disaster response. Tasks are drive a vehicle, walk over debris, climb a ladder, remove debris, walk through doors, cut through a wall, close valves and connect a hose.
Google DeepMind‘s AlphaGo (version: Lee) defeated Lee Sedol 4â€“1. Lee Sedol is a 9 dan professional Korean Go champion who won 27 major tournaments from 2002 to 2016.  Before the match with AlphaGo, Lee Sedol was confident in predicting an easy 5â€“0 or 4â€“1 victory.
Asilomar Conference on Beneficial AI was held, to discuss AI ethics and how to bring about beneficial AI while avoiding the existential risk from artificial general intelligence.
Poker AI Libratus individually defeated each of its 4 human opponents among the best players in the world – at an exceptionally high aggregated win rate, over a statistically significant sample. In contrast to Chess and Go, Poker is an imperfect information game.
Google DeepMind revealed that AlphaGo Zero – an improved version of AlphaGo – displayed significant performance gains while using far fewer tensor processing units (as compared to AlphaGo Lee; it used the same amount of TPU’s as AlphaGo Master). Unlike previous versions, which learned the game by observing millions of human moves, AlphaGo Zero learned by playing only against itself. The system then defeated AlphaGo Lee 100 games to zero, and defeated AlphaGo Master 89 to 11. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_artificial_intelligence#cite_note 0-54 Although unsupervised learning is a step forward, much has yet to be learned about general intelligence. AlphaZero masters chess in 4 hours, defeating the best chess engine, StockFish 8. AlphaZero won 28 out of 100 games, and the remaining 72 games ended in a draw.
Alibaba language processing AI outscores top humans at a Stanford University reading and comprehension test, scoring 82.44 against 82.304 on a set of 100,000 questions
The European Lab for Learning and Intelligent Systems (aka Ellis) proposed as a pan-European competitor to American AI efforts, with the aim of staving off a brain drain of talent, along the lines of CERN after World War II.
Reference Links for Artificial Intelligence Projects & more information.
Azeem Ahmed Mughal, System Support Engineer, Abu Dhabi. Azeem is tech-savvy and started learning computer at the age of 10 but he never thought that his curiosity & passion will turn into his profession. He has always enjoyed the mystifying challenges, in the Black Text VGA screen era of Games, OS CLIs or Hardware & Network Trouble shootings skills since the times of GWBASIC, Dangerous Dave and DOS 5.0.